Sunday, May 2, 2010

Ideas For Finding the Leaks in Oil Pipes in the Ocean

This is a continuation of the last post from a student in china's papers on pressures for oil pipes.

I'm just looking up the terminology and posting it, perhaps this will help with the oil spill problem in seeking to find where the biggest leaks are and then finding a way to curb the pressure so the oil leaking will slow down somehow in less than 3 months time.

Bragg wavelength

Brillouin frequency

Reading pressure in pipes - can this technology be used?

Doppler Flow Meter
Measure oil in a pipe?

    3. Some flowmeters measure in velocity (ft/sec). How can I convert the readings to volume/time?
    GPM= 2.45 * (ID in inches)² * (VELOCITY in ft/sec) GPM= gallons per minute ID = inside diameter of the pipe in inches. This formula is for water—it does not consider viscosity, temperature, or pressure. However, temperature, viscosity, and pressure will not effect a doppler flow reading.

    4. What if my fluid is not water?
    The speed of sound through water is approximately 1470 ft/sec. Most instruments are calibrated for that rate. Other fluids may be used, but your instrument should then be recalibrated.

    7. Does a doppler flowmeter require a minimum upstream straight pipe length?
    Yes. Doppler flowmeters require ten pipe diameters from any valve, tee, bend, etc. Doppler flowmeters also require a full pipe flow.

    8. What are the advantages of using a doppler flowmeter?
    —non-invasive —good for slurries, aerated liquids —portable

    9. What are the limitations of using a doppler flowmeter?
    —not suitable for clean liquids —requires straight upstream piping

Mass Flowmeters

    1. How does a mass flowmeter work?
    A volume of gas has a known mass at standard conditions. As pressure and temperature are applied, the volume will change, but the mass remains constant. Mass flowmeters measure flow based on the molecular mass of the gas; this measurement is independent of temperature and pressure. One technique to measure mass flow is to send a part of the flow through a sensor tube. In the tube, the gas is heated in a coil and then measured downstream. The temperature differential is directly related to the mass flow.

    2. Can a mass flowmeter give a total accumulation of gas?
    Yes, most mass flowmeters have outputs of either 0-5 VDC or 4-20 mA. To monitor total accumulation, connect a totalizer/monitor with a matching input ( 0-5 VDC or 4-20 mA).

Appendix A
Fluid Examples Suitable for Oval Gear Flowmeters
Although not exhaustive, the following list represents the range of fluids that can be used with the oval gear flowmeter.
  1. Measurements of sugar solutions, syrups, oils, sauces, beverages, honey, molasses, milk products, juices, chocolate and coatings in the food industry.
  2. Alcohols, syrups, glycerines and coatings in the pharmaceutical industry
  3. Shampoos, gels, perfumes and creams in the cosmetics industry
  4. Fuels, lubricants and petro derivatives in the oil and gas industries
  5. Chemicals, fluoride and acids in the water and wastewater industry.
  6. Wax finishes, perfumes, dyes and acids in the pulp and paper industries
  7. Solvents and inks in the printing industry
  8. Transmission fluid and hydraulic oil in the automotive industry
  9. Dyes, bleach and chemicals in the textile industry
  10. Oils, gasoline and kerosene in the petroleum industry
  11. Solvent and latex based paints
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People to ask about the flow meter

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